Professor of Computational Legal Theory

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  • Office hours for current students:
    Thursday, 2-3 pm


I studied Theory of Science, Logic, Theoretical Linguistics, Philosophy and Law at the Universities of Mainz, Munich, Florence and Lancaster. My main field of interest is the interaction between law, science and computer technology, especially computer linguistics. How can law, understood as a system, communicate with systems external to it, be it the law of other countries (comparative law and its methodology) or science (evidence, proof and trial process).

As a co-founder and co-director of the Joseph Bell Centre for Legal Reasoning and Forensic Statistics, I help to develop new approaches to assist lawyers in evaluating scientific evidence and develop computer models which embody these techniques. A special interest here is the development of computer systems that help law enforcement agencies to co-operate more efficiently across jurisdictions, assisting them in the interpretation of the legal environment within which evidence in other jurisdictions is collected. This research is linked to my wider interest in comparative law and its methodology, the idea of a "Chomsky turn in comparative law", and the project of a "computational legal theory".

I'm involved with a number of organisations that promote the exchange between computer science and law, including the German Association for Informatics, BILETA, and the Evidence and Investigation network of the Scottish Institute for Policing Research. I'm also on the Nomination Committee of the International Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law.

I'm currently the Director of the SCRIPT Centre for IT and IP law, working mainly on issues such as privacy compliant software architecture and more generally the scope and limits of representing legal concepts directly in the internet infrastructure.

Courses Taught

Law and New Technologies: Artificial Intelligence, Risk and the Law 2 (LLM) (Course Organiser)

Neuroscience and the Law (Honours) (Course Organiser)

Robotics and the Law (LLM) (Course Organiser)

PhD Supervisees

Jack Beattie  'Paediatric expert opinion evidence in cases of infant harm: science, truth-telling and justice'

Yianna Danidou  'Legal Implications of Trusted Computing'

Laurence Diver  'Artificial Intelligence and compliance by design'

Matthew Jewell  'Counter-narratives in the Smart City: Digital architecture and the power to oppose'

David Komuves  'Making Sense of e-Discovery: Computer-Assisted Approaches to Digital Evidence Interpretation and Evaluation'

Jesus Manuel Niebla Zatarain  'Intelligent Agents to Enforce Copyright on the Internet'

Susan Thomson  'What does Professionalism mean in Forensic Pathology?'

Edited Books

Burkhard Schafer, Maksymilian Del Mar Legal Theory and the Natural Sciences (Ashgate, 2014)

Burkhard Schafer Legal Knowledge and Information Systems - JURIX 2012: The Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference (IOS Press, 2012)

Journal Articles

Burkhard Schafer, David Komuves, Jesus Niebla Zatarain, and Laurence Driver 'A fourth law of robotics? Copyright and the law and ethics of machine co-production' (2015) Artificial Intelligence and Law 23(3) pp 217-240
Abstract: on Bing was not only a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence and law and the legal regulation of technology. He was also an accomplished author of fiction, with an oeuvre spanning from short stories and novels to theatre plays and even an opera. As reality catches up with the imagination of science fiction writers who have anticipated a world shared by humans and non-human intelligences of their creation, some of the copyright issues he has discussed in his academic capacity take on new resonance. How will we regulate copyright when robots are producers and consumers of art? This paper tries to give a sketch of the problem and hints at possible answers that are to a degree inspired by Bing's academic and creative writing.

Burkhard Schafer 'An ID database for post-referendum Scotland? A legal-contextual analysis' (2015) Datenschutz und Datensicherheit 611-616 39(9)
Abstract: To the surprise of many observers, the Scottish government announced in early 2015 plans for a Scottish National ID system, based on the existing health service database. The Scottish National Party (SNP), in power in Scotland since 2007, had previously strongly rejected similar plans for a national database for the whole of the UK due to privacy concerns. How can this change of policy be explained?

Burkhard Schafer 'D-waste: Data disposal as challenge for waste management in the Internet of Things' (2015) International Review for Information Ethics 100-106 22(1)
Abstract: Proliferation of data processing and data storage devices in the Internet of Things poses significant privacy risks. At the same time, faster and faster use-cycles and obsolescence of devices with electronic components causes environmental problems. Some of the solutions to the environmental challenges of e-waste include mandatory recycling schemes as well as informal second hand markets. However, the data security and privacy implications of these green policies are as yet badly understood. This paper argues that based on the experience with second hand markets in desktop computers, it is very likely that data that was legitimately collected under the household exception of the Data Protection Directive will "leak" into public spheres. Operators of large recycling schemes may find themselves inadvertently and unknowingly to be data controller for the purpose of Data Protection law, private resale of electronic devices can expose the prior owner to significant privacy risks.

Burkhard Schafer, Laurence Diver, David Komuves, Jesus Niebla 'Monkeying Around with Copyright - Animals, AIS and Authorship in Law' (2015) Jusletter-IT Vol 26 RZ1 - 27

Burkhard Schafer '"Theirs' not to make reply, Theirs' not to reason why"- a report on Big Data, forensic reasoning and the trial' (2014) SCRIPTed 145-152

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'All the world's a stage - reflection on the surveillance of online games' (2014) Datenschutz und Datensicherheit 593-600

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'Guter Ork, Böser Ork: Snowden und die staatliche Überwachung von Online-Spielen in Grossbritannien' (2014) Jusletter-IT Vol 6 RZ 1-43 Vl 6

Burkhard Schafer, Judith Rauhofer, Zbigniew Kwecka, William Buchanan, '"I am Spartacus" : privacy enhancing technologies, collaborative obfuscation and privacy as a public good' (2014) Artificial Intelligence and Law vol 22 p113-139 [Download]
Abstract: The paper introduces an approach to privacy enhancing technologies that sees privacy not merely as an individual right, but as a public good. This idea finds its correspondence in our approach to privacy protection through obfuscation, where everybody in a group takes a small privacy risk to protect the anonymity of fellow group members. We show how these ideas can be computationally realised in an Investigative Data Acquisition Platform (IDAP). IDAP is an efficient symmetric Private Information Retrieval protocol optimised for the specific purpose of facilitating public authorities' enquiries for evidence.

Burkhard Schafer 'Crowdsourcing and cloudsourcing CCTV surveillance' (2013) Datenschutz und Datensicherheit 434-439

Burkhard Schafer, Yianna Danidou 'Legal Environments for Digital Trust: Trustmarks, Trusted Computing and the Issue of Legal Liability' (2012) Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology 212 - 222

Burkhard Schafer, Yianna Danidou 'Legal environments for digital trust' (2011) Revista da Faculdade de direito Milton Campos 197-220

Burkhard Schafer, Wardlaw JM, O'Connell G, Shuler K, Dewilde J, Haley J, Escobar O, Murray S, Rae R, Jarvie D, Sandercock P, '"Can It Read My Mind?" - What Do the Public and Experts Think of the Current (Mis)Uses of Neuroimaging?' (2011) Public Library of Science One httpwwwplosoneorgarticleinfo%3Ado

Burkhard Schafer, Yianna Danidou 'Trusted computing and the digital crime scene' (2011) Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review 111-123

Burkhard Schafer, Christian Schwarzbauer 'fMRI in disorders of consciousness: Future diagnostic opportunities, methodological and legal challenges' (2011) Cortex 1243-1245

Burkhard Schafer, Yianna Danidou ''Trust me, I'm a computer' - Trusted Computing and the law between liability and responsibility' (2011) Information and Communications Technology Law 185-199

Burkhard Schafer 'All changed, changed utterly? Privacy protection in post-Labour Britain' (2011) Datenschutz und Datensicherheit Vol 35 pp 634-638

Burkhard Schafer, Garret O'Connell, Janet De Wilde, Jane Haley, Kirsten Shuler, Peter Sandercock, Joanna M Wardlaw 'The brain, the science and the media The legal, corporate, social and security implications of neuroimaging and the impact of media coverage' (2011) EMBO Reports 630-636

Burkhard Schafer, Omair Uthmani, William Buchanan, Alistair Lawson, Russell Scott, Lu Fan, Sohaib Uthmani 'Crime risk evaluation within information sharing between the police and community partners' (2011) Information and Communications Technology Law pp 57-81

Burkhard Schafer, Bill Buchanan, Lu Fan, Alistair Lawson, Russel Scott, Cristopher Tuemmler, Omair Uthmani 'Interagency data exchange protocols as computational data protection law' (2010) Legal Knowledge and Information Systems 243-147 (Vol 223) [Download]

Burkhard Schafer 'ZombAIs: Legal Expert Systems as Representatives "Beyond the Grave' (2010) SCRIPTed 384-393

Burkhard Schafer 'The UK Cleanfeed System - Lessons for the German Debate?' (2010) Datenschutz und Datensicherheit Vol 8 p 535-538

Burkhard Schafer, Tamsin Maxwell 'Natural language processing and query expansion in legal information retrieval: Challenges and a response' (2010) International Review of Law, Computers and Technology Pages 63 72

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'La decisione della Corte Costituzionale tedesca sul diritto alla riservatezza ed integrità dei sistemi tecnologici d'informazione - un rapporto sul caso BVerfGE' (2009) Jus e Internet

Burkhard Schafer 'Schlafwandelnd in den Überwachungsstaat?' (2009) Datenschutz und Datensicherheit Vol 8 pp 483-489

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'The German Constitutional Court on the Right in Confidentiality and Integrity of Information Technology Systems' (2009) SCRIPT-ed pp106-123 Vol 6

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'Il trojan "di stato" tedesco - sfide tra la legge e la tecnologia' (2009) Teutas - Diritto e Tecnologia Vol 2 pp 30-44

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'Big browser manning the thin blue line: Computational legal theory meets law enforcement' (2008) Problema: Anuario de Filosofía y Teoría del Derecho pp51-84

Burkhard Schafer 'Can you have too much of a good thing? A comment on Bart Verheij's legal argumentation support software' (2007) Law, Probability and Risk Vol 6 pp 209-225

Burkhard Schafer, Jeroen Keppens 'Legal LEGO: Model Based Computer Assisted Teaching in Evidence Courses' (2007) Journal of Information, Law and Technology Vol 1

Burkhard Schafer, Zenon Bankowski 'Double-click Justice: Legalism in the Computer Age' (2007) Legisprudence Vol 1 pp 31-49

Burkhard Schafer, Qiang Shen, Jeroen Keppens, Colin Aitken, Mark Lee 'A scenario-driven decision support system for serious crime investigation' (2006) Law, Probability and Risk Vol 5 pp 87-117

Burkhard Schafer, Doug Walton 'Arthur, George and the Mystery of the Missing Motive: Towards a Theory of Evidentiary Reasoning about Motives' (2006) International Commentary on Evidence Vol 4 (2)

Burkhard Schafer 'Democratic Revival or E-Sell Out? A Sceptic's Report on the State of E-Governance in the UK' (2006) Electronic Journal of Comparative Law vol 103

Burkhard Schafer 'The taming of the Sleuth-problems and potential of autonomous agents in crime investigation and prosecution' (2006) International Review of Law, Computers and Technology Vol 20 pp 63-76

Burkhard Schafer, Kingston, John; Vandenberghe, Wim 'Towards a Financial Fraud Ontology: A Legal Modelling Approach' (2006) Artificial Intelligence and Law Vol 12 pp 419-446

Burkhard Schafer, Keppens, Jeroen 'Knowledge Based Crime Scenario Modelling' (2006) Expert Systems with Applications Vol 302 pp 203-222

Burkhard Schafer, Wiegand, Olav 'Tiesu demokratija: cela uz tiesas procesa fenomenologisko teoriju' (2005) Kentaurs Vol 37 pp 163-180

Burkhard Schafer 'Ontological commitment and the concept of "legal system" in comparative law and legal theory' (2005) ARSP Beihefte Vol 102 pp 141-151

Burkhard Schafer 'Intellectual Property Rights Issues of Digital Publishing - Presence and Perspectives' (2005) SCRIPT-ed Vol 2 pp 59-71

Burkhard Schafer, Keppens, Jeroen 'And then there was none: Indirect proof and hypothetical reasoning in law' (2005) ARSP Beihefte Vol 97 pp 177-187

Burkhard Schafer, Wiegand, Olav 'Incompetent, prejudiced and lawless?' (2004) Law, Probability and Risk pp 93-108

Burkhard Schafer 'The epistemology of "Epistemology and legal regulation of proof"' (2003) Law, Probability and Risk pp 131-136

Burkhard Schafer, Zenon Bankowski 'Emerging Legal Orders. Formalism and the Theory of Legal Integration' (2003) Ratio Juris Vol 16 pp 486-505

Burkhard Schafer, Vandenberge, Wim; Kingston, John 'Light Ontologies for Heavy Criminals? Ontological modelling and fraud investigation in the EU' (2003) IFOMIS Report pp 23-33 Vol 4

Burkhard Schafer 'Form and Substance in Online Legal Education - a look over the border' (2002) Law Teacher pp 333-346 Vol 6

Burkhard Schafer 'Law and Law - a reply to Reid on strict liability' (2001) HLS Cahier 77-99

Burkhard Schafer 'Grounding Legal Information Systems' (2001) Global Review of Cyberlaw Vol 1pp 83-132

Burkhard Schafer 'Legal Transplants and Legal Downloads' (2001) International Review of Law, Computers and Technology Vol 15 pp 301-315

Burkhard Schafer 'Alice in Cyberland - Legal Expert Systems for International Law Applications' (2000) Journal of Information, Law and Technology Vol5

Burkhard Schafer 'Form Follows Function Fails - as a Sociological Foundation of Comparative Law' (1999) Social Epistemology Vol 13 No 2 pp113-128

Burkhard Schafer 'Lesniewski Quantifiers and Modal Arguments in Legal Discourse' (1998) Logic and Logical Philosophy Vol 6 pp133-155

Burkhard Schafer 'Reason's Faltering Steps: A Review of Jaap Haage's Reasoning with Rules' (1998) International Journal of Law and Information Technology Vol 3 no 6 327-334pp

Burkhard Schafer 'Inheritance Principles and the Community of Heirs' (1998) Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: Formal Ontology in Information Systems Vol 46 pp108-120

Burkhard Schafer 'Reinach, Pragmatic Universals and the Methodology of Comparative law' (1997) Beiträge der Ludwig Wittgenstein Gesellschaft Vol 20 pp580-586


Burkhard Schafer, E. Taks and A. Rull 'Creating Coreo, the Computational Copyright Observatory' in Michal Araszkiewicz and Krzysztof Pleszka (eds) Logic in the Theory and Practice of Lawmaking (Springer, 2015)

Burkhard Schafer, Jane Cornwell 'Law's Fictions, Legal Fictions and Copyright Law' in Max del Mar, William Twining (eds) Legal Fictions in Theory and Practice (Springer, 2015) 175-195

Burkhard Schafer, Laurence Diver, David Komuves, Jesus Niebla 'Monkeying Around with Copyright - Animals, AIS and Authorship in Law' in E Schweighofer, F Kummer, W Hoetzendorfer (eds) Co-operation (OCG, 2015) 651-660

Burkhard Schafer, Maksymilian Del Mar 'Of Empires and Revolutionaries' in Burkhard Schafer, Maksymilian Del Mar (eds) Legal Theory and the Natural Sciences (Ashgate, 2014) xi-xxx

Burkhard Schafer 'Information Quality and Evidence Law: a new role for social media, digital publishing and copyright law?' in Luciano Floridi, Phyllis Illari (eds) The Philosophy of Information Quality (Springer, 2014) 217-239

Burkhard Schafer, Panagia Voyatzis '"The end of law is peace. The means to this end is war": Jhering, legal education and digital visualisation' in E Schweighofer et al (eds) Zeichen und Zauber des Rechts - Festschrift fuer Friedrich Lachmayer (Weblaw, 2014) 127-152

Wiebke Abel, Burkhard Schafer 'Der Avatar dein Freund und Helfer: Rechtliche Fragen der Strafermittlung in Online-Rollenspielen' in Erich Schweighofer et al. (eds) Transparenz (Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, 2014) 503-510

Wiebke Abel, Burkhard Schafer 'Rechtsinformatik und Kulturerbe: Vorbemerkungen zu einem Austausch' in John A. Winterdyk (eds) Juvenile Justice: International Perspectives, Models and Trends (CRC Press, 2014) 262-69

Burkhard Schafer, Orlando Conetta 'LKIF in Commercial Legal Practice: Transaction Configuration from Eurobonds to Copyright' in Kevin Ashley (eds) Legal Knowledge and Information Systems - JURIX 2013 (IOS Press, 2013) 63 - 72

Burkhard Schafer 'A Logical Journey: The Anxiety of the Lesniewski Quantifiers' in Claudio Michelon, Maksymilian Del Mar (eds) The Anxiety of the Jurist: Legality, Exchange, and Judgement (Ashgate, 2013) 277-296

Judith Rauhofer, Burkhard Schafer, Zbigniew Kwecka; William Buchanan 'Schutz der Anonymität als Gemeinschaftsaufgabe - eine neue Generation von PETs?' in M. Horbach (eds) Informatik angepasst an Mensch, Organisation und Umwelt (INFORMATIK 2013) (Köllen Druck+Verlag, 2013) 2134-2148

Smita Kheria, Daithi Mac Sithigh, Judith Rauhofer, Burkhard Schafer '(Mis)appropriation Art? Copyright and Data Protection implications of "CCTV Sniffing" as Art' in E. Schweighofer, F. Kummer, W. Hötzendorfer (eds) Abstraktion und Applikation (OCG, 2013) 489-498

Burkhard Schafer, Panagia Voyatzis 'The Battle of the Precedents: Reforming Legal Education in Mexico Using Computer-Assisted Visualisation' in Zenon Bankowski, Paul Maharg, Maks Del Mar (eds) The Arts and the Legal Academy Beyond Text in Legal Education (Ashgate, 2013) 149-168

Burkhard Schafer, William Buchanan, Lu Fan, Alistair Lawson, Russell Scott, Christoph Thuemmler, Omair Uthmani 'Computational Data Protection Law: Trusting each other Offline and Online.' in Burkhard Schafer Legal Knowledge and Information Systems - JURIX 2012: The Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference (IOS Press, 2012) 31-40

Burkhard Schafer, Stephen Mason 'The characteristics of electronic evidence in digital fomat' in Stephen Mason (eds) Electronic Evidence (LexisNexis, 2012) 23-70

Burkhard Schafer, Jane Haley, Stephen Lawrie, Joanna Wardlaw 'Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Security Applications' in Ra Page (eds) Bio-Punk: Stories from the far side of research (Comma Press, 2012) 42-46

Burkhard Schafer, Stephanie Schorre 'Ich weiß was du letzten Sommer gelesen hast - E-Reader und die Implikationen für den Datenschutz' in E. Schweighofer, F. Kummer (eds) Europäische Projektkultur als Beitrag zur Rationalisierung des Rechts, (Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, 2011) pp 35-44

Burkhard Schafer 'Say "Cheese": Natural Kinds, Deontic Logic and EU Regulation 1829/2002' in Geist A, Brunschwig C.R, Lachmayer F., Schefbeck G. (eds) Strukturierung der Juristischen Semantik - Festschrift fuer Erich Schweighofer (Weblaw AG, Bern, 2011) 543-554

Burkhard Schafer, Stephen Mason 'The Characteristics of Electronic Evidence' in Stephen Mason (eds) Electronic Evidence (Butterworth, 2010) 21-50

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'The German Constitutional Court on the Right in Confidentiality and Integrity of Information Technology Systems' in V. Madhuri (eds) Hacking: A Legal Quandary (ICFAI University Press, 2010) 167-191

Burkhard Schafer 'Uber das Grab hinaus - juristische Expertensysteme als persönliche Stellvertreter' in Erich Schweighofer, Anton Geist, Ines Staufer (eds) Globale Sicherheit und proaktiver Staat - die Rolle der Rechtsinformatik (OCG, 2010) 253-258

Burkhard Schafer, Tamsin Maxwell 'Die Verteidigung hat keine weiteren Fragen - Information Retrieval und Question Answering' in Erich Schweighofer (eds) Semantisches Web und Soziale Netzwerke im Recht (OCG, 2009) 207-214
Abstract: : Dieser Aufsatz diskutiert das Potential von Internet-basierten Informations Retrieval (IR) Ansätzen für das Recht. Wir entwickeln ein neues Argument für den Einsatz von Natural Language Processing (NLP) anstelle von Knowledge Engineering (KE). Wir argumentieren des Weiteren, dass NLP-basierte Ansätze enger mit der juristischen Begriffswelt im Einklang sind als dies oft angenommen wird. Insbesondere zeigen wir, dass juristische Informationssuche eng dem Begriff des "question answering" (QA) in außerjuristischen Kontexten verwandt ist.

Burkhard Schafer, Yianna Danidou 'In Law We Trust? Trusted Computing and Legal Responsibility for Internet Security' in Gritzalis, Dimitris; Lopez, Javier (eds) Emerging Challenges for Security, Privacy and Trust (Springer, 2009) pp 399-409
Abstract: This paper analyses potential legal responses and consequences to the anticipated roll out of Trusted Computing (TC). It is argued that TC constitutes such a dramatic shift in power away from users to the software providers, that it is necessary for the legal system to respond. A possible response is to mirror the shift in power by a shift in legal responsibility, creating new legal liabilities and duties for software companies as the new guardians of internet security.

Burkhard Schafer 'Twelve Angry Men or One Good Woman? Asymmetric Relations in Evidentiary Reasoning' in Hendrik Kaptein, Henry Prakken, Bart Verheij (eds) Legal Evidence and Proof: Statistics, Stories, Logic (Ashgate, 2009) 255-283

Burkhard Schafer, Tamsin Maxwell 'Concept and Context in Legal Information Retrieval' in Enrico Francesconi, Giovanni Sartor, Daniela Tiscornia (eds) Legal Knowledge and Information Systems - JURIX 2008 (IOS Press, 2008) pp 63 - 72
Abstract: There exist two broad approaches to information retrieval (IR) in the legal domain: those based on manual knowledge engineering (KE) and those based on natural language processing (NLP). The KE approach is grounded in artificial intelligence (AI) and case-based reasoning (CBR), whilst the NLP approach is associated with open domain statistical retrieval. We provide some original arguments regarding the focus on KE-based retrieval in the past and why this is not sustainable in the long term. Legal approaches to questioning (NLP), rather than arguing (CBR), are proposed as the appropriate jurisprudential and cognitive underpinning for legal IR. Recall within the context of precision is proposed as a better fit to law than the 'total recall' model of the past, wherein conceptual and contextual search are combined to improve retrieval performance for both parties in a dispute.

Burkhard Schafer, Jeroen Keppens, Qiang Shen 'Thinking with and outside the box: developing computer support for evidence teaching' in Paul Roberts, Mike Redmayne (eds) Innovations in Evidence and Proof (Hart, 2007) pp. 139-158
Abstract: The paper describes a model based approach to the use of ICT in the teaching of forensic science to law students.

Burkhard Schafer 'Paul Lorenzen' in Julian Nida-Rümelin, Elif Ozmen (eds) Philosophie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen (Kröner, 2007) 392-394

Burkhard Schafer 'E-government in the United Kingdom' in Prins, Corien (eds) Designing e-government (Kluwer, 2007) 165-183
Abstract: The national report on e-governance for the UK from the International Congess for Comparative Law, Utrecht 2007

Burkhard Schafer 'The Courtroom as Laboratory: Universalism and Evidentiary Reasoning' in Zenon Bankowski, James MacLean (eds) The Universal and the Particular in Legal Reasoning (Ashgate, 2006) 205-223
Abstract: The paper analyses Solomon's judgement from the perspective of theory of science, more specificially particularist theories such as Nancy Cartwright's" Dabbled world". It analyses the consequences such a particularist account has for evidence scholarship, and a rational account of deciding issues of fact in a court room setting

Burkhard Schafer, Kingston, John 'FF POIROT: Herausforderungen für grenzüberschreitende Informationssysteme' in Schweighofer, Erich et all (eds) e-Staat und e-Wirtschaft aus rechtlicher Sicht (Boorberg Verlag, 2006) pp 265-273
Abstract: Discusses the methodological issues in the development of multi-lingual legal expert systems, using the FF POIROT project as a case study

Burkhard Schafer, Olav Wiegand 'It's Good to Talk: Speaking Rights and the Jury' in Victor Tadros, Antony Duff, Lindsay Farmer and Sandra Marshall (eds) The Trial on Trial (Volume Two): Judgment and Calling to Account (Hart Publishing, 2006) 117-133
Abstract: The paper explores the leverage that a comparative and transdisciplinary perspective can bring to a normative theory of the trial process. In particular, it analyses recent attempts for jury reform, the right of jurors to ask questions, from the perspective of phenomenological theories of learning and interpretation.

Burkhard Schafer, Keppens, Jeroen 'Assumption based peg unification for crime scenario modelling' in Marie Francine Moens and Peter Spyns (eds) Legal Knowledge and Information Systems: JURIX 2005 (IOS Press, 2005) pp. 49-58
Abstract: An important cause of miscarriages of justice is the failure of crime investigators and lawyers to consider plausible explanations for the available evidence. Building on work by the authors to develop software support to adress this issue, this paper describes an important class of scenarios, containing "alternative suspects" and "hidden objects" which cannot be generated robustly using conventional abductive inference mechanisms. The work is extended by proposing a novel inference mechanism, based on peg unification theories developed in dynamic logic, to generate these scenarios

Burkhard Schafer, Keppens, Jeroen 'Der Hund der nicht gebellt hat - hypothetisches Schliessen in juristischen Expertensystemen' in Scheighofer, Liebwald, Augeneder, Menzel (eds) Effizienz von e-Lösungen in Staat und Gesellschaft (Boorberg, 2005) pp. 51-57
Abstract: analyses the computer implementation of hypothetical resoning in law, and of some of the procedural rules that govern it in German law

Burkhard Schafer, Kingston, John; Vandenberge, Wim 'Ontological Modelling and Commitment to Comparative Legal Theory. A Case Study' in Enrique Caceres Nieto (eds) Inteligencia artificial aplicada al derecho (UNAM, 2005) pp 1-29
Abstract: the paper analyses how the POIROT project, an ontology based system to prevent VAT fraud in the EU, could be used within the NAFTA faremwork, and how comparative law woud have to guide this re-use

Burkhard Schafer, Gervassis, Nicholas 'How to Derive an "Ought" from a "Can't": Virtual Laws, Artificial Societes and the Idea of Designing out Crime in Cyberspace' in Polcak, Radim (eds) Cyberspace 2004: Normative Framework (Masarykova Univerzita v Brnì, 2005) pp 15-22

Burkhard Schafer, Keppens, Jeroen; Shen, Quian 'Probabilistic abductive computation of evidence collection strategies in crime investigations' in ICAIL (eds) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on AI and Law (ACM, 2005) pp. 215-225

Burkhard Schafer, Bromby, Michael 'Wie Tajomaru seine NemeSys fand: Expertensysteme zum Augenzeugenbeweis' in Bernard Schuenemann, Marie Tinnefeld, Roland Wittmann (eds) Gerechtigkeitswissenschaft (Berliner Wissenschafsverlag, 2005) pp. 259-278

Burkhard Schafer, Kingston, John; Vandenberghe, Wim 'No Model Behaviour: Ontologies for Fraud Detection' in Benjamins, Richard (eds) Law and the Semantic Web (Springer, 2005) pp. 233-247

Burkhard Schafer, Keppens, Jeroen 'Murdered by persons unknown. Speculative reasoning in law and logic' in Gordon, Thomas (eds) Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Jurix2004 (IOS Press, 2004) pp. 109-119
Abstract: proposes an extension of the formalism the authors developed earlier to model abductive evidentiary reasoning in an ATMS. The original approach was based on possible world semantics. Using the doctrine of incrimination as a starting point, we propose an extension using "pegs" as introduced in dynamic logic by Landman and Veltman

Burkhard Schafer, Rodriguez-Rico, Monica; Vandenberghe, Wim 'Undercover agents and agents provocateur - evidence collection by autonomous agents and the law' in Claudia Cevenini (eds) The Law of Electronic Agents - LEA04 (Gedit Edizioni, 2004) pp. 155-170
Abstract: analyses legal problems caused by the use of autonomous agents to collect evidence for criminal prosecutions, in particular the entrapment defence

Burkhard Schafer, Vandenberghe, Wim; Kingston, John 'Ontology Modelling in the Legal Domain - Realism without Revisionism' in Grenon, Pierre (eds) Reference Ontologies and Application Ontologies (CEUR-WS, 2003) Vol. 94
Abstract: analyses results from the FF POIROT project on modelling investment fraud in Europe from a philosophical perspective

Burkhard Schafer 'It's just not cricket: RoboCup and fair dealing in contract' in Emily Weitzenboeck, Anja Oskamp (eds) The Law and Electronic Agents (Unipub AS, 2003) pp 33-46
Abstract: Reconnects current debates on legal issues of computer mediated contract formation to the roots of agent technology in robotics. Can agent technologu developed for team sports help us understand good faith and fair dealing requirements in contract laws?

Burkhard Schafer 'Sometimes you must be kind to be cruel: Amnesty between publicae laetitiae and damnatio memoriae' in Emilios A. Christodoulidis, Scott Veitch (eds) Lethe's Law: Justice, Law and Ethics in Reconciliation (Hart Publishing, 2001) pp.17-32
Abstract: analyses the impact of the amnesty for RAF terrorists on that organisation in post-reunification Germany

Burkhard Schafer, Zenon Bankowski 'Mistaken identities: the integrative force of private law' in (eds) The Harmonisation of European Private Law (Hart Publishing, 2000) pp 21-47

Burkhard Schafer 'Community Zoos, Theme Park Cultures and the Right to Leave them all' in Emilios A. Christodoulidis Communitarianism and Citizenship (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998) pp. 84-100
Abstract: Discusses if a liberal can make more consessions to group rights than Kymlicka concedes

Notes and Reviews

Burkhard Schafer 'EU clarifies the European parameters of data protection' (2015) Ingenia Vol 62 12-13

Burkhard Schafer, Kretschmer, Martin and Deazley, Ronan; Edwards, Lilian; Erickson, Kris; Zizzo; Daniel John 'The European Commission's Public Consultation on the Review of EU Copyright Rules: A Response by the CREATe Centre' (2014) European Intellectual Property Review 547-553

Burkhard Schafer 'Language Rights and the Internet' (2002) E-L@w Review 910

Papers and Presentations

Burkhard Schafer 'Playing God(s) - Virtual World Creation, Online Spirituality and the Law' presented at The Crag workshop series, University of Edinburgh, 2015

Burkhard Schafer '#("copyright" "law") at:2 put: "code" Computer juridism, copyright law and the juridification debate' presented at IVR-UK Annual Conference, London, 2014

Burkhard Schafer 'Extending the Legal Mind - On an Intersection between forensic Neuroscience and Computer Forensics' presented at Neuroscience and the Law, Swansea, 2014

Burkhard Schafer '"You Don't Have the Right to Remain Silent": Explanation-Aware Computing and the Management of Criminal Liability in Machines' presented at Trusting Human Safety to Software, Center for Information Technology Policy , Princeton Universit, 2014

Burkhard Schafer 'Philosophy of Information - foundation for a new theory of law?' presented at Jornadas Internacionales de Filosofía del Derecho, UNAM, Mexico City, 2014

Burkhard Schafer 'Jhering revisited: how to teach civil law students to fight for what's right' presented at Segundo Congreso Internacional de Pedagogía Universitaria y Didáctica del Derecho, UNAM Mexico City, 2014

Wiebke Abel, Burkhard Schafer 'Der Avatar dein Freund und Helfer: Rechtliche Fragen der Strafermittlung in Online-Rollenspielen' presented at IRIS, Salzburg, 2014

Burkhard Schafer '"Druck dir deinen Krieger": Urheberrechtliche und regulatorische Fragen des 3D Druckens' presented at IRIS, Salzburg, 2014

Burkhard Schafer 'Of wicked wizards and indigo jackals: legal regulation of online identity in cultural comparative perspective'' presented at Albertus Institute workshop: The person in virtual reality, Edinburgh, 2014

Burkhard Schafer, Orando Conetta 'LKIF in Commercial Legal Practice: Transaction Configuration from Eurobonds to Copyright'' presented at JURIX, Bologna, 2013

Burkhard Schafer ''Schutz der Anonymität als Gemeinschaftsaufgabe - eine neue Generation von PETs' presented at INFORMATIK, Koblenz, 2013

Burkhard Schafer 'Der (aufhaltsame?) Siegeszug der Statistik im Beweisrecht des common law im Zeitalter der Datenbanken' presented at Reinhäuser Juristengespräche, Kassel, 2013

Burkhard Schafer 'Information quality and comparative law: What we can learn from Digital humanities' presented at workshop: Paul Scholten in comparative legal theory, Amsterdam, 2013

Burkhard Schafer 'Coherence in multilingual legal systems' presented at Coherence 2013, Rome, 2013

Burkhard Schafer 'Environmental Protection and Data Protection Law: Clouding the Debate?' presented at ICT and Environmental Regulation:Developing a Research Agenda, Galway, 2013

Burkhard Schafer '"Clod-Like Collection of Condensers" or "all licensed fools" - robots and the law of defamation"' presented at GikII, London, 2012

Burkhard Schafer 'Institutions of legal argumentation, a reply to Sperber and Mercier' presented at The Sperber/Mercier symposium on the evolution of argumentation, University of Windsor, Canada, 2012

Burkhard Schafer 'A Roadmap for research in AI and IP: Semantic ontologies' presented at First International workshop on Artificial Intelligence and IP law AIIP, Amsterdam, 2012

Burkhard Schafer 'You bet your life on it! Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the strength of forensic theories' presented at International Conference on Quantitative Aspects of Justice and Fairness, Florence, 2011

Burkhard Schafer 'Interagency data exchange protocols as computational data protection law' presented at JURIX, Liverpool, 2010

Burkhard Schafer 'Über das Grab hinaus: Juristische Expertensysteme als persönliche Stellvertreter' presented at IRIS, Salzburg, 2010

Burkhard Schafer 'Law under construction: teaching a new vision of law to Mexican legal community' presented at BILETA, Vienna, 2010

Burkhard Schafer 'Law abiding by design - what informatics can (and should) learn from the theory of law.' presented at Conference on Cybercrime and Cybersecurity, Glasgow, 2010

Wiebke Abel, Burkhard Schafer, Radboud Winkels, Saskia van de Ven 'Putting Old Art in New Technologies - A Registry Solution to Tackle the Trade with Illegal Antiquities' presented at BILETA, Vienna, 2010

Wiebke Abel, Burkhard Schafer, Radboud Winkels 'Watching Google Streets Through A Scanner Darkly' presented at Gikii V The Voyage Home, Edinburgh, 2010

Burkhard Schafer 'The computer says no: hearsay and machine generated speech' presented at BILETA Annual Conference, Glasgow, 2008

Burkhard Schafer 'Wege durch's Recht: Graphische Interfaces fuer juristische Informatiksysteme' presented at IRIS, Salzburg, 2008

Burkhard Schafer 'Asymmetric relations in evidentiary reasoning' presented at IVR XXIII World Congress, Krakow, Poland, 2007

Burkhard Schafer 'Trust me I'm a computer scientists: a comparative study in the interpretation of digital evidence' presented at BILETA annual conference, Hertfordshire, 2007

Burkhard Schafer 'Ontologien zum rechtlicher Schutz der Kunst' presented at IRIS, Salzburg, 2007

Burkhard Schafer, Wiebke Abel 'An officer and gentlebot: autonomous agents in the law of armed conflicts' presented at GikII, London, 2007

Burkhard Schafer, Andrew Priddle-Higson 'Modelling 'Buchanan v. Babco'' presented at JURIX, Leiden, 2007
Abstract: The paper describes some issues raised by an attempt to develop formal models for the "Buchanan v Babco" case, in particular challenges to develop formal models for multi-language reasoning

Burkhard Schafer 'Alles Kaese: Ene logisch-philosophische Analyse der Feta Entscheidung des EuGH' presented at IRIS, Wien, 2006

Burkhard Schafer 'De minimis non curat lex - an obstacle to internet governance?' presented at GikII Workshop, Edinburgh, 2006

Burkhard Schafer 'FF POIROT: Ein Erfahrungsbericht' presented at IRIS, Wien, 2006

Burkhard Schafer 'Was sind Kunstobjekte? Der Beitrag der Informatik zum rechtlichen Schutz des Kulturerbes' presented at EDV-Gerichtstag, Saarbrücken, 2006

Burkhard Schafer 'COCOA: Computational Comparative Analysis' presented at Congreso Internacional de Inteligencia Artificial y Derecho, Mexico ity, 2006

Burkhard Schafer 'Murder, Mayhem and Method - computational thinking about crime in fact and fiction' presented at 19th Jurix conference, Paris, 2006

Burkhard Schafer 'Der Hund der nicht gebellt hat - modellbasierte Expertensysteme in der Strafverfolgung' presented at Internationales Rechtsinformatik Symposium IRIS 2005 Salzburg, Salzburg, 2005
Abstract: the paper uses Conan Doyle's story to explain the basic design features of model based reasoning systems for crime investigation, and how they replicate falsificationist and abductive reasoning about crime. It concludes by ponting out some pertinent legal issues, in particular the inadmissibility of reasoning about alternative investigative processes ("alternative Ermittlungsverlaeufe") in German criminal procedure.

Burkhard Schafer 'The taming of the sleuth - Hohfeldian logic and crime investigation by autonomous agents' presented at 20th BILETA conference, Belfast 2005, Belfast, 2005

Burkhard Schafer 'Androids - liberation or liability' presented at Science Festival, Edinburgh 2005, Edinburgh, 2005

Burkhard Schafer 'Abductive computation of evidence collection strategies in crime investigations'' presented at ICAIL 2005, Bologna, 2005

Burkhard Schafer 'Money talks - RFID technology and the law of evidence' presented at AHRC Centre Privacy Workshop, Edinburgh, 2005

Burkhard Schafer 'Assumption based peg unification for crime scenario modelling'' presented at JURIX, Brussels, 2005

Burkhard Schafer 'Wie Rashomon seine NemeSys fand Expertensysteme zum Zeugenberweis' presented at Internationales Rechtsinformatik Symposium IRIS, Salzburg, 2004
Abstract: describes how the ADVOKATE system can be extended to cope with multiple witnesses, including the "Rashomon effect"

Burkhard Schafer 'Legal expert systems for multi-jurisdiction applications' presented at Congreso Internacional de Culturas y Sistemas Jurídicos Comparados, Mexico, 2004
Abstract: analyses the methodological problems in constructing legal expert systems that incorporate knowledge form more than one jurisdiction

Burkhard Schafer 'Undercover agents and agents provocateur - evidence collection by computers and the law' presented at Law of Electronic Agents LEA04, Rome, Rome, 2004
Abstract: analyses the evidentiary status of evidence collected by autonomous agents

Burkhard Schafer 'Plea Bargaining and the ECHR - towards a bayesian approach' presented at ESRC Transdisciplinary Conference on Law, Probability and Risk, Edinburgh 2004, Edinburgh, 2004
Abstract: analyses the compatibility of plea bargaining with the ECHR, arguing that a better understanding of decision making under uncertainty is required to gauge the quality and quantity of information the accused needs to know

Burkhard Schafer 'Murdered by persons unknown: Speculative reasoning in law and logic' presented at JURIX 2004, Berlin, 2004
Abstract: Proposes an extension to a formalism developed earlier that models abductive reasoning about evidence. Using the doctrine of "incrimination" as starting point, I explain how "pegs", a concept taken from dynamic logic and discourse representation theory, helps to understand crucial distinctions in the law of evidence.

Burkhard Schafer 'It's just not cricket - RoboCup and fair dealing in contract' presented at International Conference on AI and Law (2003), Edinburgh, 2003
Abstract: analyses the question of good faith in contract for computer mediated contracts with reference to robotics

Burkhard Schafer 'Nemesys - Managing and Interpreting Eyewitness Evidence' presented at 2. Joseph Bell Workshop on the Evaluation of Evidence, Edinburgh, 2003
Abstract: Introduces the Networked Eyewitness Management and Evaluation System

Burkhard Schafer, Jeroen Keppens 'Using the box to think outside it - Creative Computer support in crime investigations' presented at IVR World Congress Lund 2003, Lund, 2003
Abstract: Describes a model based reasoning system that allows explicit reasoning about crime scenes to suppport lawyers and police in constructing and testing alternative theories and hypothetical states of affairs

Burkhard Schafer 'Similarity between deontic systems' presented at IVR World Congress Lund 2003, Lund, 2003
Abstract: Uses Sneed-Stegmueller Structuralism to analyse the notion of "legal system" and "legal family" in a strictly formal way, but without using a linguisitcally defined coherence/consistency relation between sets of sentences or rules

Burkhard Schafer 'Light Ontologies for Heavy Criminals' presented at 26th German Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Hamburg, Hamburg, 2003
Abstract: Discusses the theoretical issues raised by the development of ontology based expert systems to combat fraud in the EU

Burkhard Schafer 'Academics as performance artists, some heretical thoughts' presented at FIGARO Workshop on Copyright law, Hamburg 2003, Hamburg, 2003
Abstract: Argues that online publishing can change the nature of academic output from a "product" to a "process" and discusses the copyright implications.

Burkhard Schafer 'Good grief - memory and victimehood' presented at Law and Reconciliation Workshop, Edinburgh, 2002
Abstract: analyses the question of victim's rights from the experience gained on reconciliation through amnesties in political processes

Burkhard Schafer 'Paraconsistency and Legal Reasoning in the EU, a reply' presented at Hanse law School Round table (2002), Edinburgh, 2002
Abstract: argues for the relevance of Thagard's theory of consistency to understand the emerging legal order in the EU

Burkhard Schafer 'The sound of silence - towards a theory of negative rights on the internet' presented at BILETA Annual conference, Amsterdam, 2002
Abstract: Argues for an extension to the Hohfeldian theory of right to include "negative rights" (the right NOT to vote, listen to arguments etc etc) to analyse issues of privacy on the internet.

Burkhard Schafer 'Roman law as degenerative research programme - Imre Lakatos meets Alan Watson' presented at Law and History Colloquium, London, UCL, 2002
Abstract: Argues for the use of Lakatos' methodology of scientific research programmes to understand problems of legal change highlighted by Alan Watson

Burkhard Schafer 'Deontic Logic and the EU Feta directive' presented at 4th German-Polish Conference on Logic and logical Philosophy, Dresden, 2001
Abstract: Used discussionsin formal semantics to analyse the logic of the EU feta directive

Burkhard Schafer 'The weakest link - police expert systems and statistical analysis' presented at BILETA Annual Conference 2001, Edinburgh, 2001
Abstract: Analyses the evidentiary problems posed by police expert systems like the Flint system from the perspective of statistical theory

Burkhard Schafer 'Elementary my dear Watson - expert systems in the interface between forensic science, police and the legal profession' presented at International Conference on AI and Law ICAIL, St Louis, 2001
Abstract: Describes the research carried out by the Joseph Bell Centre for forensic statistics and legal reasoning

Burkhard Schafer 'Law and Law - a reply to Reid' presented at Hansa Law School Round Table, University College, London, 2001
Abstract: argues for a rethink of the methodology of rule comparison in comparative law, based on Reid's paper on Strict liability

Burkhard Schafer 'Unity in diversity - how to chose the right logic for legal AI' presented at BILETA annual conference (1999), York, 1999
Abstract: introduces the notion of abstract deductive systems as a framework theory to chose appropriate formalisms to model legal knowledge

Burkhard Schafer 'Mercy or law and mercy through law - the German RAF amnesty' presented at Mercy and Law Workshop Edinburgh, Edinburgh, 1998
Abstract: analyses the "cold" amnesty for the German RAF terrorist group, and the impact it had on the structure of this organisation

Burkhard Schafer '"Is Roman law a degenerative research programme"' presented at CLS (Red Hawk) Seminar Series, Edinburgh, 1998
Abstract: brings together Imre Lakatos' theory of methodologial research programmes and Alan Watson's anaysis of Roman law reception

Burkhard Schafer 'The Ghost in the machines Copyright protection for computer art' presented at 6th European Conference on AI and Law, Hertfordshire, 1998
Abstract: discusses the question of moral rights for computer generated art

Burkhard Schafer 'Multimodality and legal reasoning' presented at 2. German-Polish Conference on logic and logical Philosophy, Sagan, 1998
Abstract: analyses the interplay of modalities in the criminal law of attempt

Burkhard Schafer 'Legal Ontology "sans frontiers"' presented at Formal Ontology in Information Systems Conference (FOIS(98), Trento, 1998
Abstract: develops a formal ontology to compare collective legal entities (community of heirs, companies, partnerships etc) across jurisdictions

Burkhard Schafer 'Mereologie in der Rechtsvergleichung' presented at Philosophia Scientifica: Mereologie in den Wissenschaften, Murnau, 1997
Abstract: uses mereological notions of part and whole to compare selected legal concepts

Burkhard Schafer 'Hohfeldian reductionism and the abortion debate' presented at Realism, Reductionsim, Revision: 3rd Conference of the German Association for Analytical Philosophy, Muenchen, 1997
Abstract: Extends the Hohfeldian Scheme of rights and duties to analyse the debate between Hoerster and Spaeman on abortion and pre-natal rights

Burkhard Schafer 'How Greece lost its marbles' presented at Public law and Property, Edinburgh, 1997
Abstract: uses the concept of intergenerational equity to analyse issues of cultural property

Burkhard Schafer 'Community Zoos and Theme park cultures' presented at ALSP annual conference, Edinburgh, Law Faculty, 1997
Abstract: a hohfeldian analysis of Kymlicka's disucssion of internally opressive minority rights

Burkhard Schafer 'Reinach, Pragmatic universals and the methodology of comparative law' presented at 19th international Ludwig Wittgenstein Conference, Kirchberg, 1997
Abstract: Compares Reinach's theory of a priori legal structures to the concept of universal grammar in chomskyan linguistics

Burkhard Schafer 'Flower power and power for flowers - a comparative analysis of legal standing for NGOs' presented at Hart Workshop: Acess to environmental justice, 1996
Abstract: analyses the effect different rules on legal standing have on the efficiency of NGO's