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LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law

The LLM in Innovation, Technology and Law offers advanced study of a range of law and law-related subjects, which address the opportunities and risks posed by innovation and new technology.

The programme also offers an opportunity to develop more detailed knowledge, understanding and research skills in a chosen dissertation topic.

Dr Rachael Craufurd Smith, Reader in EU Law, discusses the benefits of studying for an LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law at Edinburgh Law School.

This unique degree programme explores the role of the law in regulating and promoting new and emerging technologies. The courses on offer will enable you to examine the legal, ethical and regulatory issues in fields such as:

  • artificial intelligence
  • biotechnology
  • data protection
  • information technology
  • intellectual property
  • online media and social media platforms
  • medical sciences
  • space law

The core subjects of the degree provide in-depth knowledge of domains where law engages with technology, laying the foundations for a specialised dissertation.

By the end of your studies will have acquired a sophisticated awareness of the problems that arise in the field of law and technology and the differing approaches to their solution.

Nadia, LLM in Innovation, technology and the Law, 2017
As one of few prominent law schools offering a technology-related program, it provides an uncontested platform to gain a better understanding of the legal aspects of technology applications ...
Nadia Miranty Verdiana
LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law

Digital technologies are increasingly becoming a ubiquitous part of the world we live in. Technological development brings about change at a pace that was unfathomable just a few years ago, and this involves every aspect of our daily lives and our societies:

  • the way we communicate;
  • the way business transactions are concluded;
  • the way the media operate;
  • the way artificial intelligence replaces human beings in the workplace and beyond;
  • the way personal data is shared, and much more.

As law-makers and regulators around the world strive to grapple with on-going changes, this programme offers a unique opportunity to engage with contemporary questions surrounding the law and policy that govern innovation processes, combining together diverse perspectives from a range of cutting-edge courses.

By the end of your studies for this degree, you will have acquired a sophisticated awareness of the problems that arise in the field of law and technology and the differing approaches to their solution. The degree will also enhance career prospects in the legal profession, in regulatory bodies at the international and domestic level, third sector organisations and within media, IT and creative industries.

Staff on the Innovation, Technology and the Law Programme explore the risks and opportunities created by technological innovation for individuals and society more generally.

Dr Lachlan Urquhart’s research considers how we can build ethical frameworks into artificial intelligence systems, with projects designed to enhance the trustworthy nature of robotic systems, eg drones; to analyse the ethics of affective computing use in smart cities in Japan and the UK; and to develop an internet device that can help dementia sufferers manage identity and memories.

Professor Burkhard Schafer’s research also focuses on the ethics of emerging technologies, with a specific interest in how technology influences the development and application of the law.

Nicolas Jondet’s research interests lie in the field of privacy, information control, and the regulation of new technologies such as blockchain; while Drs Paolo Cavaliere and Rachael Craufurd Smith have worked together to represent the UK on the EU Media Pluralism Monitor. Dr Cavaliere’s research focuses on issues surrounding freedom of expression and digital platforms, while Dr Craufurd Smith has particular interests in media ethics and regulation, media concentration and transparency, and the regulation of commercial speech.

Throughout each academic year, a number of prominent experts from both academic and professional backgrounds come and deliver talks and seminars, and generally engage with our student and research community. Speakers invited over the last few years included prominent scholars from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Leuven, Penn State and Queensland among others.

Contact us

If you have any questions about the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law please don't hesitate to contact us.

This programme can be taken full-time over one year, or part-time over two years subject to visa restrictions.  It offers a range of courses from the fields of technology, communications, IP and medical law with an international perspective, giving you the option to tailor the programme to suit your needs and interests.

The programme consists of 180 credits, comprising taught courses worth 120 credits (60 credits per semester) and a 10,000 word dissertation worth 60 credits. Full programme details for the 2024-25 academic year are available on the University Degree Regulations and Programmes of Study website.

View 2024-25 programme information for the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law

Courses listed below are scheduled for the 2024-25 academic year.

Depending on demand, space on specific courses may be limited.

You must select between 80 and 120 credits of the following courses: 

  • The Legal Challenges of Information Technology (20 credits)
    This course aims to deliver a challenging perspective on the wide range of legal questions posed by information technologies as they continue to develop; and to provide students with a fresh perspective on law and technologies and an appreciation of the extent to which legal questions must be viewed broadly.
    After exploring different approaches to regulation and to the protection of rights in software, the course will then consider the ongoing relevance of intellectual property in cyberspace, including peer generated content illegal filesharing and enforcement, and liability for online content in the digital economy.The use of personal data for commercial purposes in the content of social media and other Web 2.0 services will be considered, together with other issues, like cybercrime and cloud computing.
  • Information: Control and Power (20 credits)
    This course will investigate, through a range of legal disciplines and perspectives, the growing focus placed on, and value attached to, information by society, governments, businesses and individuals; concerns as to its control and misuse; and the impact of this on all stakeholder, particularly in the light of the opportunities and challenges of evolving and converging - technologies.
  • International and European Media Law (20 credits)
    This course will examine the impact of International and European law on, firstly, the structure of media markets and, secondly, the content of media services. The course will start with a discussion of the nature of the media, the media 'value chain', and the relationship between media freedom, freedom of expression and other human rights. It will examine the various international organisations competent in the media field and the regulatory strategies that are being adopted to deal with media convergence and globalisation. In relation to structural matters, consideration will be given to consolidation of media ownership and state funding of the media, in particular public service broadcasting. In relation to content controls, the course will examine attempts to create a more equitable flow of media content and concerns over 'media imperialism', the regulatory problems posed by pornography and hate speech and the balance to be struck between freedom of the media and privacy.
  • Robotics, AI and the Law (20 credits)
    The course introduces you to the legal and wider regulatory issues raised by the increasing use of automated and autonomous devices. As we increasingly allow machines to make decisions for us, this raises significant problems for our legal concepts of liability, responsibility legal personhood.

    In addition to gaining a deeper understanding of the specific legal issues that are created by a number of particularly important applications of robotics and autonomous agent technology, you will also acquire a generic understanding of the types of problems that are raised by autonomous technologies for the theory of regulation. You will gain an understanding of the limits of regulation by law and the ability to evaluate comparatively other modes of regulation for a given problem.

  • Space Law (20 credits)

    The course will explore the five main UN treaties relating to space (Outer Space 1967, Rescue Agreement 1968, Liability Convention 1972, Registration Agreement 1975 and Moon Agreement 1979) and their continuing relevance to recent developments in the field of space exploration and use. In addition, each seminar will address a specific development or challenge in regulating space such as the regulation of small satellites, space debris, human space flight and remote sensing.

  • E-Governance, Digital Change and Democritisation (10 credits)

    What is the shape of democracy in the 21st Century?

    Digital technologies are already affecting virtually any aspect of public life: from the way local authorities deliver public services, to how political decisions are made; from supporting business-to-government purchases to harnessing the potential of technological and mobile innovation to bridge the digital divide and aid economic development.

    The course focuses on five selected case-studies to discuss the impact of digital technologies on today's societies from a specific public law angle, including constitutional theory (right to vote, equality before the law, democratic decision-making processes), administrative law (delivery of public services, urban governance, public sector procurement) and international public law (right to development) perspectives. law.


  • Human-Computer Interaction and Governance (10 credits)

    Technology law students increasingly need higher levels of literacy in computing topics, and this course explores a domain of computer science called human-computer interaction (HCI) and questions what lessons we can learn from this field for technology law and governance.

    This short 10-credit course presents a range of methodological and substantive topics to broaden law students' skill-sets beyond traditional legal modes of inquiry. This is complemented by utilising novel use cases of cutting edge technologies to ground class discussions in emerging real life governance problems. We will also reflect on practices of designers and what opportunities there are for addressing legal, cultural and social harms in their work.

    This has the benefit of introducing students to (a)new ways of thinking about what designers do; (b) new methods and approaches they can take into their own legal work; (c) and ) engage with new applications being developed in HCI research to understand better how we live ethically and legally with technology.


  • Software and the Law (20 credits)

    This course will examine how software is generated, protected and commercialised. It will explore the intellectual property protection afforded to software via copyright, patents or trade secrets. It will also explore more complex issues of ownership, such as in the employment context or when AI is used to generate software. The course will explore the requirements imposed on software development with respect to data protection and information security. It will also look at liability issues for software providers and risk assessments and classification of software using AI. Lastly, the course will explore competition law issues relevant to software marketplaces, the definition and compliance with interoperability requirements as well as technical standardisation

  • EU Data Protection Law (GDPR) (20 credits)
    The purpose of this course is to consider the European Union's (EU) data protection framework as set out in the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The last decade has seen a heightened awareness of data protection and privacy issues, largely brought about by the development of new technologies and business models that rely heavily on the use of personal data. We are now operating in a world where our everyday life is increasingly dominated by 'smart' devices, apps, online platforms and AI systems, and the EU is often seen as leading the global effort in regulating this new data and technology-driven environment. This course will consider whether or not data protection laws are appropriate to cope with the pressures that developments in technology are bringing. It will focus on the principles at the heart of data protection law and examine their application to specific settings. It will also consider the impact the GDPR has already had on the global data protection landscape.


You can select between 0 and 40 credits of the following courses:

  • Intellectual Property Law 2: Industrial Property (20 credits)

    The purpose of this course is to consider the laws relating to patents, trade marks, passing off, and breach of confidence. Noting the international framework and context, the focus will be on European and UK law.
    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in the scope of these intellectual property rights. This course will examine in detail the law on subsistence/entitlement to protection, infringement and defences for all of the relevant rights, alongside discussion of wider policy, economic and other considerations.
    The sessions will also highlight areas of particular topicality.

  • Fundamental Issues in Medical Jurisprudence (20 credits)

    This course serves as a foundation for critical analytical engagement with the core features of the discipline of medical jurisprudence, being the relationship between law and ethics in the provision of healthcare, the influence of human rights on medical practice, the importance of consent, confidentiality and medical negligence in shaping the contours of the doctor/patient relationship, as well as issues relating to health research and public health.

  • Contemporary Issues in Medical Jurisprudence (20 credits)

    This course is designed to engage students with current live issues arising in the field of medical jurisprudence, being a disciplines which sits at the cross-roads between law, medicine and ethics and is concerned primarily with legal and social responses to advanced in medicine, healthcare and related technologies. The course is deliberately designed to be open and responsive to issues that are current at the time of delivery in any given year.

  • Shaping and Regulating Modern Healthcare (10 credits)

    This course provides students with an opportunity to explore some of the ways that modern healthcare and its regulation have been (and are being) shaped by key events. In particular, it considers how high profiles failures of care have impacted on law, policy and regulation in the sector, and how this continues to evolve.

  • Clinical Negligence and the Law (10 credits)

    This course is a detailed exploration of the law of clinical negligence. It is designed to equip students with an in-depth knowledge and understanding of relevant case law. It also aims to develop skills in using the case law effectively by formulating reasoned and persuasive arguments for or against particular legal propositions. Whilst focusing on the law in the UK, the course will have a strong comparative dimension. The clinical negligence action will be viewed in its social, economic and political context and students will be encouraged to reflect critically on the various factors driving law and policy in this area.

  • Reproduction and the Law (10 credits)

    This course provides students with an understanding of the law, policy, and precedent associated with the regulation of human reproduction in the UK. It provides a solid legal grounding in this area by focusing on four key topics: abortion, assisted reproduction and embryo research, wrongful life and wrongful birth, and surrogacy.

You will have the option to take between 0 and 40 credits of courses from different subject areas offered by the Law School, depending on availability and with the express permission of the Programme Director. Depending on demand, space on courses outside the core courses may be limited.

Full programme details, including core and optional courses is available on the University Degree Regulations and Programmes of Study website.

View 2024-25 programme information for the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law


Having successfully completed 120 credit points of courses within the LLM, you will be ready to move onto a single piece of independent and in-depth research. The 10,000 word dissertation allows you to focus on a preferred topic from within the field of innovation, technology and the law, normally based on a subject you have studied in one of your courses during the programme.

You will be assigned an academic dissertation supervisor who will provide you with support and guidance while you prepare and write your dissertation.

The dissertation is a challenging but rewarding endeavour, asking you to demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the relevant literature and an ability to engage critically with a range of sources, drawing on the skills and knowledge you have developed during the course of the programme. Students are encouraged to show originality and evidence of independent thinking, whether in terms of the material used, or the manner in which it is presented.

The dissertation is written in the summer months (April to August) after the taught courses are successfully completed.

Please note that due to unforeseen circumstances or lack of demand for particular courses, we may not be able to run all courses as advertised come the start of the academic year.

Contact us

If you have any questions about the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law please don't hesitate to contact us.


Page update: Courses for the 2024-25 year were published on the 3rd May 2024. 

Staff teaching on the core courses for the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law for 2024-25 are experts in their field and are actively involved in cutting-edge research in various legal fields including media law, regulation of new technologies, IT law, IP law, and medical law and ethics.

Professor Burkhard Schafer - Programme Director 2024-25

Burkhard is Professor of Computational Legal Theory and Director of the SCRIPT Centre for IT and IP law. His main field of interest is the interaction between law, science and computer technology, especially computer linguistics. How can law, understood as a system, communicate with systems external to it, be it the law of other countries (comparative law and its methodology) or science (evidence, proof and trial process). He is currently working mainly on issues such as privacy compliant software architecture and more generally the scope and limits of representing legal concepts directly in the internet infrastructure.

Find out more

Paolo Cavaliere joined the Law School from September 2014 as a lecturer in Digital Media and IT Law. Prior to joining the School, Paolo has been a researcher at the Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policies of the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies of the University of Oxford where he has also helped to coordinate the Monroe Price Media Law Moot Court Competition. His main interests in research include the discipline of pluralism and diversity in the media, e-democracy and the relationship between new media and politics, regulation of audiovisual industries and digital media. He has written about different aspects of Media law, including “mediacracy” and the democratic deficit of the EU; media pluralism in the European sphere; digital technologies and the political debate in the public sphere.

Find out more

Jane Cornwell joined the Law School as a lecturer in intellectual property law in October 2010. After graduating from the University of Cambridge, she qualified and practised as a solicitor in the intellectual property team at Linklaters LLP in London. Thereafter she spent several years practising at McGrigors LLP in Scotland, latterly as Director in the Edinburgh litigation team specialising in contentious intellectual property. Jane's expertise covers a wide range of IP rights, including trade marks, designs, patents and breach of confidence. Her present teaching and research interests focus on trade marks, designs and remedies for infringement, with a particular interest in the effect of European harmonisation within these areas. Jane is also a member of CREATe (Centre for Creativity, Regulation, Enterprise & Technology), leading a work package on copyright and civil enforcement.

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Lachlan is a Lecturer in Technology Law at the University of Edinburgh. He is also a visiting researcher at the Horizon Digital Economy Research Institute, where he was a Research Fellow in Information Technology Law from 2016-2018.

Lachlan's primarily works at the boundaries of computer science (human-computer interaction), information technology law (mainly privacy and information security), and computer ethics. He focusses extensively on the technical, socio-legal, sociological, and ethical implications of living with interactive computing (e.g. Ubicomp/Internet of Things, robotics, smart homes & cities, social media etc.).

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Smita joined the Law School as a Lecturer in Intellectual Property Law in September 2008. She is also an associate of the SCRIPT Centre for Studies in Intellectual Property and Technology Law and member of CREATe (Centre for Creativity, Regulation, Enterprise & Technology), serving as Lead Investigator on two CREATe projects. Her research interests include applicability of empirical research, particularly socio-legal methodologies in addressing questions on copyright law and policy as to new types of creative content and exploring connections between Intellectual property law and new forms of property and culture through perspectives of creators and users.

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Judith Rauhofer is a Lecturer in IT Law and an Associate Director of the Centre for Studies of Intellectual Property and Technology Law (SCRIPT). Her research interests include the commercial and fundamental rights aspects of online privacy and electronic surveillance, data protection, information security and all areas of e-commerce and internet law and policy. Judith is particularly interested in exploring the tensions between privacy as an individual right and as a common good.

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Emmanuel is a Lecturer in International Intellectual Property Law.  His teaching and research focuses on international and comparative aspects of intellectual property law, and an examination of the relationship between intellectual property and human rights. He is also interested in analysing intellectual property rights in the context of business and human rights.

Emmanuel will be on sabbatical for the 2023-24 academic year.

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Gerard is a lecturer in medical law and ethics in the School of Law. His research interests include medical law, patent law and the regulation of the life sciences. He speaks Japanese and also conducts comparative research in Japanese law within these subject areas. He has held visiting fellowships at the Centre for Studies in Ethics and Rights (Mumbai, India), the Centre for Biomedical Ethics, National University of Singapore and with the Program on Science, Technology and Society at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

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Rachael Craufurd Smith is a Reader in Media and EU Law specialising in international and European media law and regulation, with a particular interest in the future of public service media, free speech and media responsibility, and the protection of cultural heritage. She completed her doctorate at the European University Institute, Florence, and previously worked as a solicitor at the London law firm Payne Hicks Beech, at the International and Policy and Planning Departments of the BBC, and as a Fellow for a number of years at Trinity and Corpus Christi Colleges and a University Lecturer at the University of Oxford.

Rachael will be on sabbatical for the 2024 calendar year. 

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Dr. Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra is Chancellor’s Fellow in the Legal and Ethical Aspects of Biomedicine, and Co-director of the JK Mason Institute for Medicine, Life Sciences and the Law. She is also a member of the Wellcome Trust-funded Centre for Biomedicine, Self and Society. Dr. Ganguli-Mitra’s background is in bioethics, with a special interest in global bioethics, structural and gender justice. She has written on ethical issues related to global surrogacy, sex-selection, biomedical research in low-income countries, social value in research governance and the concepts of exploitation and vulnerability in bioethics.

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The staff teaching on this programme are subject to change for 2024-25. Staff listed as on sabbatical will not be available to teach for the duration of their sabbatical.

Contact us

If you have any questions about the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law please don't hesitate to contact us.

Find out what it's like to study for an LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law at Edinburgh Law School from our current and former students.

Aline, Brazil

Aline, from Brazil, studied for an LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law in the 2021/22 academic year, graduating in 2022. In this video she talks about her experience of studying for an LLM at Edinburgh Law School, life in Edinburgh and her plans for the future.

Heidimaria studied the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law, graduating in 2022.

"The University of Edinburgh is one of the world’s most prestigious cradles of knowledge and students become a part of international community that extends far beyond their time in Scotland. The Innovation, Technology and the Law LL.M. programme gave me insight into contemporary legal challenges related to data protection, IPR, AI, Web3 and robotics, to name few.

Innovation, Technology and the Law Student, Heidimaria

The professors provided an endless source of inspiration, and the staff were committed to supporting students’ journeys. A word of warning for those with a curious mind and burning desire to always learn more, the myriad of studying materials might make you feel like a child in a candy shop!

Scotland is truly magical, a combination of vibrant urban life, gorgeous architecture, Scottish bagpipes, heart-warmingly friendly people, and nature that takes your breath away. My year at the University of Edinburgh constituted a unique, once in a lifetime experience I will never forget!"

LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law Graduate, Frauke Tepe, 2020

After finishing my law studies in Germany, I wanted to embark on a new adventure and decided to do the Master’s degree in Innovation, Technology and the Law in Edinburgh. The programme and the courses it offers is unique within Europe, but also world-wide. The professors are very motivated and always up to date in the rapidly evolving tech and media world. Their enthusiasm quickly jumps to you and the discussions in class were very lively and enriching.

Before coming to Scotland, I knew little about Edinburgh and the country itself, but on various road trips I got to experience the Scottish nature and mentality and fell in love with it! Edinburgh is such a beautiful city with many little streets, cafes and pubs to discover and enjoy. Even though our experience was cut short due to COVID-19, the master’s degree was one of the best decisions in my life.

Frauke studied the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law in the academic year 2019-20, graduating in 2020.

Naomi, from Scotland, studied for an LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law in the 2019/20 academic year, graduating in 2020. In this video she talks about her experience of studying for an LLM at Edinburgh Law School, life in Edinburgh, completing her studies during the Covid-19 pandemic and her plans for the future.

As a Chilean lawyer, the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law of Edinburgh Law School perfectly fitted my expectations in various ways. First, for its flexibility, as courses outside the program may be attended by students. Second, its structure consists of a variety of cutting-edge courses, allowing students to get involved with a wide range of topics according to their own interests (data protection, AI, information technology, robotics, media law, among many others). Third, top of the line lecturers, with notable practical and academic backgrounds.

Jorge, LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law, 2020

Finally, the program requires students to develop high quality analyses and approaches to unresolved legal challenges, demanding serious study and development of our relevant research skills.

Along with the above, the chance to complement such an intense and extraordinary academic experience in Edinburgh, one of the best quality life cities of the world, just made the perfect match for an unforgettable year.

Jorge studied the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law in the academic year 2019-20, graduating in 2020.

The University of Edinburgh offers a great experience and a chance to meet students from all over the world. Remarkably, it has a well-sorted library system. I could access many books and articles online, which was very helpful during Corona restrictions. The professors and staff are amiable and were always there if I needed advice or guidance. I would like to take this opportunity to sincerely thank all of you. The city of Edinburgh itself was a joy to explore and is one of my favourite cities now.

Sophia, LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law, 2020

The program ‘Innovation, Technology and the Law’ was exciting and provided a lot of insight into different fields of law relevant to the regulation of new technologies. I recommend everyone to visit the open day to get a good impression of what expects you.

Sophia studied the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law in the academic year 2019-20, graduating in 2020.

Niovi, a student from Greece, studied the LLM in Innovation Technology and the Law at Edinburgh Law School in the 2019/20 academic year. In this video she talks about her experiences on the LLM and living in Edinburgh.

"The Law School has allowed me to pursue my academic interests in Innovation, Technology and the Law while helping me grow personally and technically.

The small classes encouraged in-depth discussions, the interesting but nonetheless extensive reading lists stimulated the overall teaching outcome and the possibility to choose classes and essay topics oneself facilitated every student to make the programme her/his Masters of Law."

Hanna Marie, LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law, 2017

"As one of few prominent law schools offering a technology-related program, it provides an uncontested platform to gain a better understanding of the legal aspects of technology applications – including E-commerce, artificial intelligence, and big data – many of which are unregulated or under-regulated. The valuable insights on how to take legal approaches to it, is a forte of this program.

Nadia, LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law, 2017

Contact us

If you have any questions about the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law please don't hesitate to contact us.

Applications for the 2024-25 academic year have now closed. Applications for entry in 2025-26 will open in October 2024. 

Please note that the information provided is for entry in the 2024-25 academic year and requirements for future academic years may differ. 

This programme can be taken full time over one year, or part time over two years subject to visa restrictions.

Due to high demand, the school operates a number of selection deadlines. We will make a small number of offers to the most outstanding candidates on an ongoing basis, but hold the majority of applications until the next published selection deadline when we will offer a proportion of the places available to applicants selected through a competitive process.

We recommend that you apply as early as possible. This is particularly important for applicants who may need to allow sufficient time to take an English language test, for overseas students who may need time to satisfy necessary visa requirements and/or to apply for University accommodation.

We require a minimum 2:1 honours degree from a UK university, or its international equivalent, in law. We may also consider a UK 2:1 honours degree, or its international equivalent, in a social science subject. Entry to this programme is competitive. Meeting minimum requirements for consideration does not guarantee an offer of study.

Supporting your application

  • Relevant work experience is not required but may increase your chances of acceptance.
  • Relevant professional qualifications will be considered.
  • Preference will be given to those with grades above the minimum requirements due to strong competition for places on this programme.

International qualifications

You can check whether your degree qualification is equivalent to the minimum standard before applying.

Check your degree

Students from China

This degree is Band A.

Find out more about our postgraduate entry requirements for students from China

Postgraduate study in the field of law requires a thorough, complex and demanding knowledge of English, so we ask that the communication skills of all students are at the same minimum standard.

You must demonstrate a level of English language competency at a level that will enable you to succeed in your studies, regardless of your nationality or country of residence.

English language tests

We accept the following English language qualifications at the grades specified:

Two year expiry

  • IELTS Academic / IELTS Academic for UKVI and IELTS Academic Online: total 7.0 (at least 7.0 in the writing component and 6.5 in each other module)
  • TOEFL-iBT (including Special Home Edition): total 100 (at least 25 in writing and 23 in each other module)
  • Trinity ISE: ISE III with a pass in all four components
  • PTE Academic: 70 overall with at least 70 in the writing component and 62 in each other component
    *Please note that we have suspended acceptance of PTE Academic Online with immediate effect*
  • Oxford ELLT (Global and Digital): 9 overall with at least 9 in the writing component and 8 in each other component

Three and a half year expiry

  • C1 Advanced, formerly known as Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE)
  • C2 Proficiency, formerly known as Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE)

Your English language qualification must be no more than two years old from the start of the month in which the programme you are applying to study begins, unless you are using CAE/CPE, in which case it must be no more than three and a half years old on the first of the month in which the degree begins.

Degrees taught and assessed in English

We also accept an undergraduate or postgraduate degree, that was taught and assessed in English in a majority English speaking country as defined by UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI). The UK Government's website provides a list of majority English speaking countries.

View the UKVI list of majority English speaking countries

We also accept an undergraduate or postgraduate degree, or equivalent, that has been taught and assessed in English from a university on our list of approved universities in non-majority English speaking countries.

Approved universities in non-majority English speaking countries

If you are not a national of a majority English speaking country, then your degree must be no more than five years old at the beginning of your programme of study.

View approved universities in non-majority English speaking countries

Your application may not be successful if you do not currently satisfy any of these requirements; alternatively, you may be offered a place conditional on your reaching the satisfactory standard by the time you start the degree.

Find out more about the University's English language requirements

Pre-sessional English for Academic Purposes

We also accept satisfactory completion of our English for Academic Purposes programme as meeting our English language requirements. You must complete the programme no more than two years and one month before the start date of the degree you are applying to study.

Find out more about the University's Pre-sessional English for Academic Purposes

English language support

The University runs a series of programmes for English Language Education, including a pre-sessional English Language Programme intended to strengthen your English Language skills before you start your programme of study.

Find out more about English language support offered by the University

Deadlines for applicants applying to study the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law in 2024-25 are provided in the table below.

Round Application deadline Decisions by
1 13 November 2023 14 December 2023
2 04 January 2024 20 February 2024
3 04 March 2024 29 April 2024
4 01 May 2024 25 June 2024
5 21 June 2024 17 July 2024

We monitor application numbers carefully to ensure we are able to accommodate all those who receive offers. It may therefore be necessary to close a programme earlier than the published deadline and if this is the case we will place a four-week warning notice on the relevant programme page.

Please note that the deadline for meeting the conditions of an offer is 18 August 2024.

Applications are made online via the University Application Service, EUCLID.

Please follow the instructions carefully and make sure that you have included the following documentation with your application:

  • You will need to submit a personal statement of around 500 words, outlining your academic history and relevant experience. Guidance on writing your personal statement.
  • Degree certificates showing award of degree
  • Previous academic transcripts for all past degree programmes (please upload the full transcript showing results from all years of study)
  • A reference in support of your application. The reference should be academic and dated no earlier than one year from the start of study on the LLM programme
  • Evidence of English language proficiency, if required

If you are currently studying for your degree or you are not in a possession of an English test result you may still apply to the programme. Please note that it is your responsibility to submit the necessary documents.

Please be aware that applications must be submitted and complete, i.e. all required documents uploaded, by the relevant application deadline in order to be considered in that round. Your application will still be considered if you have not yet met the English language requirement for the programme.

View full detailed application guidance

Students at this University must not undertake any other concurrent credit bearing studies in this (or in any other) institution, unless the College has granted permission. The College must be satisfied that any additional credit-bearing studies will not restrict the student’s ability to complete their existing programme of study. Students will not be permitted to undertake concurrent degree programmes in any circumstances.

If you are studying at this or another institution just prior to the start of your postgraduate studies you must have finished these studies before the start of the programme to which you have an offer.

After your application has been submitted you will be able to track its progress through the University's applicant hub.

Application processing times will vary, however the admissions team will endeavour to process your application within four to six weeks of submission. Please note that missing documentation will delay the application process.

You will be informed as soon as possible of the decision taken. Three outcomes are possible:

  • You may be offered a place unconditionally
  • You may be offered a conditional place, which means that you must fulfil certain conditions that will be specified in the offer letter. Where a conditional offer is made, it is your responsibility to inform the College Postgraduate Office when you have fulfilled the requirements set out. 
    Please note that the deadline for meeting the conditions of an offer is 18 August 2024.
  • Your application may be unsuccessful. If your application has not been successful, you can request feedback from us or refer to our guidance for unsuccessful applicants, which explains some of the common reasons we why we reach this decision.
    View the University's guidance for unsuccessful applicants

Deferring your offer

We do not normally offer deferrals, however, we may be able to make a very limited number of offers for deferred entry in exceptional circumstances.

View full guidance on deferral requests

If you receive an offer of admission, either unconditional or conditional, you will be asked to pay a tuition fee deposit of £1,500 (within 28 days of receiving your offer) to secure your place on the programme.

Find out more about tuition fee deposits

The University’s terms and conditions form part of your contract with the University, and you should read them, and our data protection policy, carefully before applying.

University of Edinburgh admissions terms and conditions

Contact us

If you have any questions about applying to the LLM in Innovation, Technology and the Law please don't hesitate to contact us.