Research Assistant, CITSEE Project


Gëzim Krasniqi joined the Law School as a part-time research assistant on the CITSEE research project. Previously he has held the position of research fellow on the CITSEE project and was engaged in preparing national case studies on citizenship in Kosovo and Albania.

CITSEE (Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia) is a comparative and contextualised study of the citizenship regimes of the seven successor states of the former Yugoslavia (SFRY). Grounded in the discipline of law, but using methods which look at the evolution of legal and institutional change in its broader social and political context, the project involves the application of the broad approach of constitutional ethnography. It comprises national case studies of the seven states and thematic case studies of key issues which have a transnational dimension: the status of residents of the former SFRY Republics resident in other Republics at the moment of independence, dual and plural nationality, the granting or denial of political rights for resident non-nationals and non-resident nationals, the status of minorities such as the Roma, gender issues arising in a citizenship context, and the impact of citizenship concepts on free movement and travel across borders.

CITSEE involves a team of 8 researchers, with multiple national, disciplinary and linguistic backgrounds. The project is funded by an Advanced Investigator Award of 2.24 million Euro awarded to Professor Jo Shaw, by the European Research Council. The project will run from 1 April 2009 until 31 March 2014.

Gëzim Krasniqi is undertaking his PhD in Sociology at the University of Edinburgh. He also holds an MA in Human Rights and Democracy in South East Europe from the Universities of Sarajevo and Bologna and another MA in Nationalism Studies with distinction from the Central European University (Budapest, Hungary), within the framework of which has completed two MA theses: "Ethnonationalism – the old ideology in a new reality: empowering the core nation and disempowering minorities in the former Yugoslav republics” and "Unrecognized alike, yet not equal: Albanians and Bosnian Muslims in interwar Yugoslavia 1918-1941".

He has written articles for numerous local newspapers, magazines and academic journals in Kosovo, Albania and the U.S, including Koha Ditore, Express, Koha Jone, MM, Polis, Kosova Law Studies, Diplomatic Courier etc.

In addition, he has worked as project supervisor with Kosova Education Center (KEC) and as external evaluator of education programs/projects of the Kosovo Foundation for Open Society (KFOS) in Prishtina, Kosovo.

Journal Articles

Gezim Krasniqi 'State Borders, Symbolic Boundaries and Contested Geographical Space: Citizenship Struggles in Kosovo' (2013) Transitions 522 29-51

Gezim Krasniqi ''Quadratic Nexus' and the Process of Democratization and State-Building in Albania and Kosovo: A Comparison' (2013) Nationalities Papers 413 395-411
Abstract: This paper examines the interplay between internal and external actors in the process of democratization and state-building in Albania and Kosovo. It does so by using David J. Smith's "quadratic nexus" that links Brubaker's "triadic nexus" - nationalizing states, national minorities and external national homelands - to the institutions of an ascendant and expansive "Euro-Atlantic space". The main argument of this paper is twofold. First, it argues the nexus remains a useful framework in the study of state- and nation-building provided that it moves beyond the "civic vs. ethnic" dichotomy. Today, many states with a mixture of civic and multi-ethnic elements involve this relational nexus. Second, while comparing Albania and Kosovo, this paper argues that all the four elements of the nexus have a different impact on the process of state- and nation-building and their relationship is more conflictual in Kosovo than in Albania.

Gezim Krasniqi 'Unpacking Post-Communist Socio-Political Transformations in the Western Balkans: A Citizenship-Centred Approach' (2012) Südosteuropa 604 555564
Abstract: This paper discusses the benefits of using a citizenship-centred approach in the study of state-building in the Balkans. Applying Shawfs and Štiksfs concept of the gcitizenship regimeh, the paper argues that the process of multiple transformations triggered by the fall of communism and the varieties in state-building practices in the post-Yugoslav states cannot be fully comprehended without a deeper understanding of citizenship regimes.

Gezim Krasniqi 'Overlapping jurisdictions, disputed territory, unsettled state: the perplexing case of citizenship in Kosovo' (2012) Citizenship Studies 16 (3-4) 353-366
Abstract: This paper examines the nascent citizenship regime in Kosovo since the country's declaration of independence in 2008. It argues that the defining characteristics of the Kosovan citizenship are: (1) adoption of the 'new-state' model (i.e. inclusion into its citizenship of all Kosovo residents); (2) tension between civic and multicultural conceptions of citizenship on the one side, and ethno-national conceptions on the other; and (3) contested nature and overlapping jurisdictions. In addition, it claims that the present legal, political and territorial dispute in Kosovo seriously undermines the consolidation of Kosovo's citizenship regime and has turned Kosovo into a territory of de facto shared sovereignties (condominium-like constellations).

Gezim Krasniqi 'Socialism, National Utopia, and Rock Music: Inside the Albanian Rock Scene of Yugoslavia, 1970-1989' (2011) East Central Europe 38 (2-3) 336354
Abstract: Th is study examines the nascent Albanian rock scene in Kosovo in the 1970s and 1980s. It argues that the rock scene represented both a subcultural movement as it "deviated" from the prevailing Albanian culture in Yugoslavia (and Albania, as well), introducing new forms of expression, as well as a countercultural movement within the larger Yugoslav space for it conveyed political messages which challenged the predominant political order in Yugoslavia. As a cultural phenomenon embedded in a specific socioeconomic and geopolitical context, the Albanian rock scene in Kosovo, although relatively short-lived, initiated important changes in the cultural and social life of Kosovo.

Gezim Krasniqi 'The 'forbidden fruit': Islam and politics of identity in Kosovo and Macedonia' (2011) Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 112 191-207
Abstract: This paper depicts the interplay of religion and politics, as well as of external and internal actors among Albanian communities in Kosovo and Macedonia. It argues that Islam has never been allowed into the political space, despite occasional attempts to politicize it and utilize it for political and nationalist expediency. This relative absence of Islam from the political sphere is due to a specific social and political context, as well as to a specific historical experience. However, one can depict a higher presence of Islam among Albanians in Macedonia, for reasons related to their position as a minority within an Orthodox majority country that is undergoing a process of reaffirmation of religion as an essential pillar of an emerging Macedonian national identity.

Gezim Krasniqi 'The International Community's Modus Operandi in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Kosovo: A Critical Assessment' (2010) Südosteuropa Vol 58 No 4 520&8208541
Abstract: This paper analyzes the involvement of the international community in the region of the former Yugoslavia, focusing on the cases of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, and on its attempts to foster multiethnic democracies in these war-torn societies. It argues that the prevailing assumption among the international community that democratic and multicultural institutional frameworks would automatically give rise to liberal democracy in the former Yugoslavia, irrespective of the establishment of rule of law, has harmed efforts to create well-functioning democracies and stable societies. Moreover, the paper argues that despite the mantra of "multiethnicity" propagated by the international administrations in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as in Kosovo, ethnic segregation has been nourished by applying the principle of territoriality when conferring group-differentiated rights.

Gezim Krasniqi ''Parallel system' in Kosovo: strengthening ethnic identity through solidarity and common social action' (2010) SEEU Review Vol 6 No 1 41-55
Abstract: This paper argues that ethnic and national solidarity expressed among Albanians in Kosovo in the 1990s, which was created as a result of the social and political action, had a significant impact on political mobilization and reinforcement of national identity among Kosovar Albanians. This movement and common social action it undertook did reinforce the sense of belonging and ethnic identification among Albanians. Further, it argues that solidarity, despite the fact that is created with the aim of providing disadvantaged groups with a resource for collective action and group self-protection, it may lead to ethnic or national 'unmixing', alienation and hostility. Apart from the issue of solidarity, this paper analyzes the Kosovar 'parallel system' from the point of view of social movements and networks as well as its relations with identity and political change it aimed to achieve.

Gezim Krasniqi 'Defective alike, yet not equal; Cyprus, Taiwan and Kosovo' (2009) Journal of Human Rights and Policy Vol 2 No 1 49-60
Abstract: This paper sets out to examine and compare three cases of political communities where internal and/or external political disagreements exist regarding the nature of the state and its political and legal subjectivity in international law, namely Cyprus, Taiwan and Kosovo. By looking at certain constrains and quite different state abilities of the three case studies, this paper argues that statehood and recognition criteria are often contradictory and unclear. In addition, it suggests that a new practice of partial statehood and incomplete sovereignty is gaining momentum in international politics. In this context, it looks at the continuous diminishing role of the Westphalian model of state and inability and powerlessness of the United Nations (UN) to set clear criteria for statehood and implement them accordingly.


Gezim Krasniqi '"For Democracy - Against Violence": A Kosovar Alternative' in Bojan Bilic and Vesna Jankovic (eds) Resisting the Evil: [Post-]Yugoslav Anti-War Contention (Nomos, 2012) 83-103

Gezim Krasniqi ''Overlapping jurisdictions, disputed territory, unsettled state: the perplexing case of citizenship in Kosovo' in Jo Shaw, Igor Stiks Citizenship after Yugoslavia (Routledge, 2012) 69-82

Working Papers

Gezim Krasniqi 'The challenge of building an independent citizenship regime in a partially recognised state: the case of Kosovo', SCJS User Guide, 2010/04 (Scottish Government, 2010) [Download]
Abstract: This paper analyses efforts to create an independent citizenship regime in the partially recognised state of Kosovo. It argues that in a situation where there was no previous independent baseline for citizenship, Kosovo opted for the 'new state' model in defining and constituting its citizenry. Thus, by defining the new body of citizens in terms of territory and residence (though with certain conditions and limitations), the 'new born' state differs substantially from most of other countries that emerged after the dissolution of Yugoslavia. This paper includes a historical account of citizenship policies in the territory of Kosovo, a detailed analysis of the new Kosovar citizenship regime, and an overview of the current political debates related to citizenship.

Gezim Krasniqi 'Citizenship as a tool of state-building in Kosovo: status, rights, and identity in the new state', SCJS User Guide, 2010/10 (Scottish Government, 2010) [Download]
Abstract: This paper examines the emergence of an autonomous citizenship regime in Kosovo, with a particular focus on citizenship as a tool of state-building. It argues that in the case of Kosovo citizenship is meant to serve as a link between a war-torn community of people and a new polity based on principles of equality and all inclusiveness, or, as a tool of political integration within the new political entity, which aims at replacing divisions of ethnicity, religion or social status. In addition, it looks at the impact of the tension between the ethno-cultural and political aspects of nationhood in the ongoing state-building process in Kosovo, as well as the stateness problem and contested statehood on citizenship policies.

Gezim Krasniqi 'Citizenship in an emigrant nation-state: the case of Albania', SCJS User Guide, 2010/13 (Scottish Government, 2010) [Download]
Abstract: This paper explores the emergence and transformation of citizenship in Albania since the country's independence in 1912, with a particular focus on the developments in the aftermath of the fall of communism in 1991. It argues that only after the fall of communism, which was followed by massive waves of emigration, and the subsequent liberalisation and democratisation of the Albanian state did citizenship in its modern and liberal sense slowly start to enter the political agenda in Albania. The paper also provides a detailed account of the current citizenship legislation in Albania, which reflects the country's attempts to democratise and achieve EU membership.

Papers and Presentations

Gezim Krasniqi 'EU Integration and the Albanian State-nation Constellation in the Balkans' presented at UACES 43rd Annual Conference, Leeds, 2013

Gezim Krasniqi 'State Borders, Symbolic Boundaries and Contested Geographical Space:' presented at 17th Annual ASN World Convention, Columbia University, New York, 2012

Gezim Krasniqi 'Foreign policy as a constitutive element of statehood: the case of Kosovo' presented at Foreign Policy in the Yugoslav Successor States Workshop, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, 2012

Gezim Krasniqi 'Albanian Milieu(s) in the Balkans: Politics, Culture, and Economy' presented at 44th Annual Convention of the Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies, New Orleans, LA, 2012

Gezim Krasniqi 'Citizenship, State-Building and Political Integration in Southeast Europe - Legal, Political and Identity-Related Aspects' presented at International Workshop 'Citizenship, Sovereignty and Soft Borders in Southeast Europe', Pöcking (Munich), 2011

Gezim Krasniqi 'Disentangling Kosovar citizenship after the ICJ Opinion?' presented at The Association for the Study of Nationalities 2011 World Convention, Columbia University, New York, 2011

Gezim Krasniqi 'The challenge of building an independent citizenship regime in a partially recognised state: the case of Kosovo' presented at 8th Convention of the Central and East European International Studies Association (CEEISA), Istanbul, Turkey, 2011

Gezim Krasniqi 'The Role of Minorities and External Actors in the Process of Democratisation and State-Building in Albania and Kosovo: A Comparison' presented at UACES Annual Conference: Exchanging Ideas on Europe, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 2011

Gezim Krasniqi 'Transformation of Citizenship in Albania - Developments in the Aftermath of the Fall of Communism' presented at Third RRPP Annual Scientific Conference 'Social, Political and Economic Change in the Western Balkans', Sveti Stefan, Montenegro, 2011

Gezim Krasniqi 'Albanians and Bosnian Muslims in Interwar Yugoslavia: Mutual Cooperation and Competition' presented at TRANSNATIONAL ISLAM IN INTERWAR EUROPE, Leiden, the Netherlands, 2011

Gezim Krasniqi 'Citizenship and (Contested) Geographical Space: the Case of Kosovo' presented at The Yougoslav Space 20 Years Later, ULB, Brussels, Belgium, 2011

Gezim Krasniqi 'Stateness and Citizenship Struggles in Post-independence Kosovo' presented at The Association for the Study of Nationalities 2010 World Convention, Columbia University, New York, 2010

Gezim Krasniqi 'Academic debates and controversies in Kosovo: an overview' presented at Kosovo/Kosova in the 20th century: exploring prospects for future international scientific cooperation, European Academy, Berlin, 2010

Gezim Krasniqi 'The 'forbidden fruit': Islam and politics of identity among Albanians in Kosovo and Macedonia' presented at After the Wahhabi mirage: Islam, politics and international networks in the Balkans, European Studies Centre, University of Oxford, 2010

Gezim Krasniqi 'The role of international institutions in forging an autonomous citizenship regime in Kosovo' presented at Theories and Practices of Citizenship in the New Balkan States, Edinburgh, 2010

Gezim Krasniqi 'Quadratic nexus - an all-explanatory approach to state-building in the Western Balkans?' presented at RESEARCH ON STATE-BUILDING IN THE WESTERN BALKANS: COMPARATIVE METHODOLOGIES, LSE Global Governance, London, 2010

Related Staff